Air



Air is a mixture of gases - nitrogen, oxygen, carbon (IV) oxide, water vapor and noble gases. The following observations confirm air to be a mixture:

Air pollution affects people’s health in a variety of ways. These health effects can be seen in the young and old as well as the healthy and infirm. With both outdoor and indoor sources, air pollution is a health issue with global consequences.
Air pollution is linked to health problems in the respiratory, cardiovascular, reproductive, neurological, and immune systems. For example, people with asthma can have difficulty breathing if air pollution is high, and prenatal and early childhood air pollution exposure is linked with neurobehavioral problems. Long-term exposure can cause cancer, and, more recently, scientists have discovered associations with obesity and diabetes.

Pollution
Means any direct or indirect alteration of the physical , thermal , chemical , or biological properties of the environment caused by the discharge of hazardous substance or pollution and which adversely affect any beneficial use or causes a contravention of any condition , limitation , or restriction to which an authorization under this Act is subject.

Outdoor air
Outdoor air pollutants come from vehicle emissions, factory chimneys, chemical manufacturing, forest fires, and other sources. NIEHS is funding research on pollutants that include particulate matter, ultrafine particles, ozone, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen dioxide.

NIEHS research has contributed a sound scientific base for the development of stricter air quality standards by regulatory agencies, while also contributing to the identification of new risks. As research in this area advances, it will continue to inform public health interventions, including regulatory actions, to improve health and protect quality of life.

Indoor Air
Gas stoves and heating units can release air pollutants, such as nitrogen dioxide, into the home and other indoor environments. Mold, tobacco smoke, pet dander, and pest allergens can also contribute to poor indoor air quality. Additionally, outdoor air pollutants can penetrate the indoor environment and accumulate, especially if buildings have poor ventilation. Exposure to these indoor pollutants can cause or worsen health problems.

The main and major sources of pollution in Afghanistan are:

Definition of water pollution
Water pollution is an increase in the magnitude of the reactor, whether it is chemical, physical or biological, which changes its properties and its essential role for special purposes.

Water contaminating sources
Any source of activity or use of which causes water pollution that includes industrial, mining, agriculture and livestock, towns and hospitals, services, and the like.

Water contaminating agents
Water is one of the most important and vital factors in the life of living organisms. In this regard, the prevention of water pollution is equally important and important. Water contaminating agents are very diverse and can pollute both groundwater and surface water.

Groundwater pollutants
The minerals present in the surface mines become transformed into a contaminating agent. For example, surface water (from rain, etc.) when passing coal mines, dissolves iron II (pyrite) with coal, and then converts it into sulfuric acid by interaction. The resulting acid passes through the various layers of underground reservoirs, causing it to become contaminated.

The accumulation of urban sewage, especially if it enters a calcareous or sandy area, becomes exposed and degraded to bacteria, directly and easily penetrates into underground reservoirs and contaminates them.

Radioactive Wastes: One of the major contaminants of underground water resources is today one of the ways to eliminate them, which is actually a big problem for the owners of nuclear technology, burial them underground, in addition to burial of radioactive waste underground, all explosions Underground nuclear submarines also contaminate groundwater.


Surface contaminating agents


Industrial Pollutants
Many industrial waste will cause serious damage to aquatic animals. The waste is used to neutralize a large amount of water-soluble oxygen, reducing the oxygen demand for aquatic organisms and threatening to die. On the other hand, many of these lesions themselves are poisonous and cause water poisoning, such as heavy metals, cymbals, lead, copper, and so on.

The introduction of phosphoric and nitro compounds in water leads to the growth of algae, which, while creating the odor and taste of abnormal water, absorbs water from the water and reduces its incidence and causes water damage and damage.

Household sewage
All cleaners that enter the surface water enter the compounds in the water, which, if they are not neutralized or degraded by microorganisms, produce a deadly toxic to aquatic animals.

Insecticides, Vegetable Pesticides and Alimentary Fertilizers:

Unsolicited agricultural development necessitates pollution of surface water. Like the DDT